marcus maximus aurelius

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [165]) Faustina was three months pregnant at her husband's accession. Quintus may have justified his loyalty to the usurper on his commitment to his own family’s safety. [116][note 7] He was the man Fronto recognized as having 'wooed Marcus away' from oratory. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 156. Commodus then strangles his father, makes himself emperor anyway, and tries to have Maximus murdered, setting up the plot for the rest of the film. One notorious case brought him into conflict with Atticus. [191], On his deathbed, Antoninus spoke of nothing but the state and the foreign kings who had wronged him. Marcus Aurelius. He kept in close correspondence with Fronto for many years afterwards. [252], Cassius's army, although suffering from a shortage of supplies and the effects of a plague contracted in Seleucia, made it back to Roman territory safely. Marcus and his cousin-wife Faustina had at least 13 children during their 30-year marriage,[123][303] including two sets of twins. [44] A new set of tutors – the Homeric scholar Alexander of Cotiaeum along with Trosius Aper and Tuticius Proculus, teachers of Latin[45][note 3] – took over Marcus's education in about 132 or 133. As it was, Marcus was set apart from his fellow citizens. He eventually killed Commodus, but died shortly after. [169] The births were celebrated on the imperial coinage. It may have continued into the reign of Commodus. Will you accept this great honor I have offered you? Marcus was born during the reign of Hadrian to the emperor's nephew, the praetor Marcus Annius Verus, and the heiress Domitia Calvilla. [183], In either autumn 161 or spring 162,[note 12] the Tiber overflowed its banks, flooding much of Rome. Moreover, there was nothing specifically Stoic about this legal activity, and in one respect the age of Antoninus Pius and Marcus signalizes a retrogression in the relationship of law to society, for under them there either began or was made more explicit a distinction of classes in the criminal law—honestiores and humiliores—with two separate scales of punishments for crime, harsher and more degrading for the humiliores at every point. Crafted of bronze in circa 175, it stands 11.6 ft (3.5 m) and is now located in the Capitoline Museums of Rome. An Educated Emperor: Marcus Aurelius and Fronto. [161], A possible contact with Han China occurred in 166 when a Roman traveller visited the Han court, claiming to be an ambassador representing a certain Andun (Chinese: 安 敦), ruler of Daqin, who can be identified either with Marcus or his predecessor Antoninus. [160], In accordance with his will, Antoninus's fortune passed on to Faustina. And Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, born nearly two millennia ago (121 – 180), is a leader and example who provides a resounding yes. Marcus’s personal contribution, however, must not be overstated. [57] Marcus became M. Aelius Aurelius Verus, and Lucius became L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus. 662 likes . Marcus Aurelius, in full Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, original name (until 161 ce) Marcus Annius Verus, (born April 26, 121 ce, Rome [Italy]—died March 17, 180, Vindobona [Vienna, Austria] or Sirmium, Pannonia), Roman emperor (161–180 ce), best known for his Meditations on Stoic philosophy. Professional jurists called him 'an emperor most skilled in the law'[271] and 'a most prudent and conscientiously just emperor'. [72], Antoninus demanded that Marcus reside in the House of Tiberius, the imperial palace on the Palatine, and take up the habits of his new station, the aulicum fastigium or 'pomp of the court', against Marcus's objections. In modern editions of Fronto's works, it is labeled De bello Parthico (On the Parthian War). Topics. Marcus, with his preference for the philosophic life, found the imperial office unappealing. Marcus Aurelius was one of the most important Stoic philosophers, cited by H.P. The extent to which he intended it to be seen by others is uncertain. The First Apology of Justin Martyr, Chapter LXVIII. Maximus … Únete a Facebook para conectar con Marcus Aurelius Maximus y otras personas que quizá conozcas. '[216], Fronto sent Marcus a selection of reading material,[218] and, to settle his unease over the course of the Parthian war, a long and considered letter, full of historical references. [42] One of his teachers, Diognetus, a painting master, proved particularly influential; he seems to have introduced Marcus Aurelius to the philosophic way of life. There was corruption among the officers: Victorinus had to ask for the resignation of a legionary legate who was taking bribes. (His adoptive brother, nearly 10 years his junior, was brought into official prominence in due time.) The preponderance of Greek tutors indicates the importance of the Greek language to the aristocracy of Rome. [111] In any case, Marcus's formal education was now over. Marcus Aurelius has symbolized for many generations in the West the Golden Age of the Roman Empire. [94][note 6] He did not care much for Atticus, though Marcus was eventually to put the pair on speaking terms. Marcus Aurelio "Maximus" Born: 1973-08-18 AGE: 47 Fortaleza, Ceara Brazil. Instead, Marcus was in the care of 'nurses',[36] and was raised after his father's death by his grandfather Marcus Annius Verus (II), who had always retained the legal authority of patria potestas over his son and grandson. The extent to which Marcus himself directed, encouraged, or was aware of these persecutions is unclear and much debated by historians. Modern scholars have not offered as positive an assessment. He was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers.. During his reign, the Empire defeated a … [123] The first mention of Domitia in Marcus's letters reveals her as a sickly infant. Marcus and Lucius nominated their father for deification. Sister of Trajan's father: Giacosa (1977), p. 7. For constructive statesmanship or the initiation of original trends in civil policy, Marcus had little time or energy to spare. Pulleyblank, Edwin G.; Leslie, D. D.; Gardiner, K. H. J. Barnes, 'Hadrian and Lucius Verus. Meditations is still revered as a literary monument to a government of service and duty. [214] Marcus could not take Fronto's advice. [43] In April 132, at the behest of Diognetus, Marcus took up the dress and habits of the philosopher: he studied while wearing a rough Greek cloak, and would sleep on the ground until his mother convinced him to sleep on a bed. "[299], In the first two centuries of the Christian era, it was local Roman officials who were largely responsible for the persecution of Christians. Marcus makes no apparent reference to the marriage in his surviving letters, and only sparing references to Faustina. Father to a murdered son, husband to a murdered wife. Dio asserts that the Annii were near-kin of Hadrian, and that it was to these familial ties that they owed their rise to power. There are stray references in the ancient literature to the popularity of his precepts, and Julian the Apostate was well aware of his reputation as a philosopher, though he does not specifically mention Meditations. In particular, he meditates at length on the virtues of the emperor Antoninus Pius, his adoptive father. Some Germanic tribes who settled in Ravenna revolted and managed to seize possession of the city. He would criticize himself in the Meditations for 'abusing court life' in front of company. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus was born in April 26, 121 AD, to a prominent family. [52] As part of his adoption, Commodus took the name, Lucius Aelius Caesar. In 136 the emperor Hadrian (reigned 117–138) inexplicably announced as his eventual successor a certain Lucius Ceionius Commodus (henceforth L. Aelius Caesar), and in that same year young Marcus was engaged to Ceionia Fabia, the daughter of Commodus. But the emaciation is still extreme and there is still quite a bit of coughing'. [59], At some time in 138, Hadrian requested in the senate that Marcus be exempt from the law barring him from becoming quaestor before his twenty-fourth birthday. His stepbrother Lucius Verus, then named Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus, was then named co-emperor – to his behest. [239] At the end of the year, Lucius took the title Armeniacus, despite having never seen combat; Marcus declined to accept the title until the following year. Maximus "the Spaniard" Decimus Meridius (144-192) was the commander of the Armies of the North and the Felix Legions under the Roman Empire. [251], By the end of the year, Cassius's army had reached the twin metropolises of Mesopotamia: Seleucia on the right bank of the Tigris and Ctesiphon on the left. Marcus had chosen a reliable man rather than a talented one. Lucius Verus may have died from the plague in 169. [276][277][278] In addition to Republican-era Roman glasswares found at Guangzhou along the South China Sea,[279] Roman golden medallions made during the reign of Antoninus and perhaps even Marcus have been found at Óc Eo, Vietnam, then part of the Kingdom of Funan near the Chinese province of Jiaozhi (in northern Vietnam). [23][24][note 1], Marcus's mother, Domitia Lucilla Minor (also known as Domitia Calvilla), was the daughter of the Roman patrician P. Calvisius Tullus and inherited a great fortune (described at length in one of Pliny's letters) from her parents and grandparents. Marcus Aurelius, in full Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, original name (until 161 ce) Marcus Annius Verus, (born April 26, 121 ce, Rome [Italy]—died March 17, 180, Vindobona [Vienna, Austria] or Sirmium, Pannonia), Roman emperor (161–180 ce), best known for his Meditations on Stoic philosophy. Barnes, Timothy D. 'Legislation against the Christians'. [90] He thought the Stoics' desire for apatheia was foolish: they would live a 'sluggish, enervated life', he said. Cite this Page: Citation. Ver los perfiles de las personas que se llaman Marcus Aurelius Maximus. In. [145] He then turned over, as if going to sleep, and died. Farquharson dates his death to 130 when Marcus was nine. He led a Twelve Year Campaign in Germania, and his legions there were commanded by the Roman General Maximus Decimus Meridius. His daughters were in Rome with their great-great-aunt Matidia; Marcus thought the evening air of the country was too cold for them. His first consulship was in 161, so he was probably in his early thirties,[208] and as a patrician, he lacked military experience. He found it difficult to keep himself upright without stays. Lower Pannonia was under the obscure Tiberius Haterius Saturnius. Like “When another blames you or hates you, or people voice similar criticisms, go to their souls, penetrate inside and see what sort of people they are. But if he had put his family first he would not have risked all to honor the dead Emperor’s last wishes for a legacy greater than his conquests. [39] Marcus was grateful that he did not have to live with her longer than he did. [40], Marcus was educated at home, in line with contemporary aristocratic trends;[41] he thanks Catilius Severus for encouraging him to avoid public schools. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 164, citing P. Kneissl. The persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire appears to have increased during Marcus's reign, but his involvement in this is unknown. [221] Lucius's biographer suggests ulterior motives: to restrain Lucius's debaucheries, to make him thrifty, to reform his morals by the terror of war, and to realize that he was an emperor. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. Commodus was a known consumptive at the time of his adoption, so Hadrian may have intended Marcus's eventual succession anyway. At some time between 155 and 161, probably soon after 155, Marcus's mother Domitia Lucilla died. Marcus Aurelius came from a prominent Roman family. After Antoninus died in 161, Marcus acceded to the throne alongside his adoptive brother, who took the name Lucius Verus. It was the only thing the biographer could find fault with in Marcus's entire boyhood. [190] Marcus had displayed rhetorical skill in his speech to the senate after an earthquake at Cyzicus. [294][295], Christians such as Justin Martyr, Athenagoras, and Eusebius also gave him the title. [129] Faustina probably had another daughter in 151, but the child, Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina, might not have been born until 153. He was the Roman ruler from 161 -180 CE and a Stoic philosopher. At the ceremonies commemorating the event, new provisions were made for the support of poor children, along the lines of earlier imperial foundation… Marcus Aurelius, however, is not … A frontier post had been destroyed, and it looked like all the peoples of central and northern Europe were in turmoil. However, two years later he reverted to the previous values because of the military crises facing the empire. Upon his adoption by Antoninus as heir to the throne, he was known as Marcus Aelius Aurelius Verus Caesar and… Professor of Ancient History, University of Cambridge, 1979–84. Suetonius a possible lover of Sabina: One interpretation of, Lover of Hadrian: Lambert (1984), p. 99 and. [288], Marcus was succeeded by his son Commodus, whom he had named Caesar in 166 and with whom he had jointly ruled since 177. [37] Marcus thanks his grandfather for teaching him 'good character and avoidance of bad temper'. Ah, yes, I remember. [127] He quoted from the Iliad what he called the 'briefest and most familiar saying...enough to dispel sorrow and fear':[128]. "[292], Michael Grant, in The Climax of Rome, writes of Commodus:[293], The youth turned out to be very erratic, or at least so anti-traditional that disaster was inevitable. Marcus Aurelius was chosen by Emporer Hadrian to be his eventual successor. He and Faustina, Marcus wrote, had been 'pretty occupied' with the girl's care. [243] Sohaemus was hailed on the imperial coinage of 164 under the legend .mw-parser-output span.smallcaps{font-variant:small-caps}.mw-parser-output span.smallcaps-smaller{font-size:85%}Rex armeniis Datus: Lucius sat on a throne with his staff while Sohaemus stood before him, saluting the emperor. [170], Soon after the emperors' accession, Marcus's eleven-year-old daughter, Annia Lucilla, was betrothed to Lucius (in spite of the fact that he was, formally, her uncle). [124] Domitia would die in 151. [112], Fronto had warned Marcus against the study of philosophy early on: 'It is better never to have touched the teaching of philosophy...than to have tasted it superficially, with the edge of the lips, as the saying is'. [202] Reinforcements were dispatched for the Parthian frontier. If not for his adoption, he probably would have become triumvir monetalis, a highly regarded post involving token administration of the state mint; after that, he could have served as tribune with a legion, becoming the legion's nominal second-in-command. [241], Occupied Armenia was reconstructed on Roman terms. [71] Marcus would struggle to reconcile the life of the court with his philosophic yearnings. tags: opinions, philosophy. [60] Marcus's adoption diverted him from the typical career path of his class. [240] When Lucius was hailed as imperator again, however, Marcus did not hesitate to take the Imperator II with him. This matter must be our next topic; for our history now descends from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust, as affairs did for the Romans of that day. [14] Marcus was raised in his parents' home on the Caelian Hill, an upscale area with few public buildings but many aristocratic villas. Soon after the emperors' accession, Marcus' eleven-year-old daughter, Annia Lucilla, was betrothed to Lucius (in spite of the fact that he was, formally, her uncle). Maximus : Two years, two hundred and sixty-four days and this morning. [3] For Marcus's life and rule, the biographies of Hadrian, Antoninus, Marcus, and Lucius are largely reliable, but those of Aelius Verus and Avidius Cassius are not. [253] Lucius took the title Parthicus Maximus, and he and Marcus were hailed as imperatores again, earning the title 'imp. Marcus Aurelius. The infants were buried in the Mausoleum of Hadrian, where their epitaphs survive. His health was so poor that, during a ceremony to mark his becoming heir to the throne, he was too weak to lift a large shield on his own. The reign of Marcus Aurelius was marked by military conflict. His master, he writes to Fronto, was an unpleasant blowhard, and had made 'a hit at' him: 'It is easy to sit yawning next to a judge, he says, but to be a judge is noble work'. At his own insistence, however, his adoptive brother was made coemperor with him (and bore henceforth the name Imperator Caesar Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus). Marcus Aurelius as the adopted son of Antonius Pius prepared for over twenty years for the time we would be emperor, and part of his preparation was to study the works of the Stoic philosophers like Epictetus, Seneca, and Cicero. [236] He only accompanied the group as far as Brundisium, where they boarded a ship for the east. [233] Lucilla was accompanied by her mother Faustina and Lucius's uncle (his father's half-brother) M. Vettulenus Civica Barbarus,[234] who was made comes Augusti, 'companion of the emperors'. That's the way he introduces the subject. [198], There was threat of war on other frontiers as well – in Britain, and in Raetia and Upper Germany, where the Chatti of the Taunus mountains had recently crossed over the limes. His son Commodus became emperor and soon ended the northern military efforts. To what extent he intended them for eyes other than his own is uncertain; they are fragmentary notes, … He was immediately deified and his ashes were returned to Rome, where they rested in Hadrian's mausoleum (modern Castel Sant'Angelo) until the Visigoth sack of the city in 410.

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